Twurl is like curl, but tailored specifically for the Twitter API. It knows how to grant an access token to a client application for a specified user and then sign all requests with that access token.
It also provides other development and debugging conveniences such as defining aliases for common requests, as well as support for multiple access tokens to easily switch between different client applications and Twitter accounts.
Twurl can be installed using RubyGems:
gem install twurl
If you haven't already, the first thing to do is apply for a developer account to access Twitter APIs:
After you have that access you can create a Twitter app and generate a consumer key and secret.
When you have your consumer key and its secret you authorize your Twitter account to make API requests with that consumer key and secret.
twurl authorize --consumer-key key \
This will return an URL that you should open up in your browser. Authenticate to Twitter, and then enter the returned PIN back into the terminal. Assuming all that works well, you will be authorized to make requests with the API. Twurl will tell you as much.
The simplest request just requires that you specify the path you want to request.
Similar to curl, a GET request is performed by default.
You can implicitly perform a POST request by passing the -d option, which specifies POST parameters.
twurl -d 'status=Testing twurl' /1.1/statuses/update.json
You can explicitly specify what request method to perform with the -X (or --request-method) option.
twurl -X POST /1.1/statuses/destroy/1234567890.json
Using Bearer Tokens (Application-only authentication)
You can generate a bearer token using
--bearer option in combination with the
twurl authorize --bearer --consumer-key key \
And then, you can make a request using a generated bearer token using
--bearer request option.
twurl --bearer '/1.1/search/tweets.json?q=hello'
To list your generated bearer tokens, you can use the
This will print a pair of consumer_key and its associated bearer token. Note, tokens are omitted from this output.
Accessing Different Hosts
You can access different hosts for other Twitter APIs using the -H flag.
twurl -H "ads-api.twitter.com" "/7/accounts"
To upload binary files, you can format the call as a form post. Below, the binary is "/path/to/media.jpg" and the form field is "media":
twurl -H "upload.twitter.com" -X POST "/1.1/media/upload.json" --file "/path/to/media.jpg" --file-field "media"
twurl alias h /1.1/statuses/home_timeline.json
You can then use "h" in place of the full path.
Paths that require additional options (such as request parameters, for example) can be used with aliases the same as with full explicit paths, just as you might expect.
twurl alias tweet /1.1/statuses/update.json
twurl tweet -d "status=Aliases in twurl are convenient"
Changing your default profile
The first time you authorize a client application to make requests on behalf of your account, twurl stores your access token information in its
~/.twurlrc file. Subsequent requests will use this profile as the default profile. You can use the
accounts subcommand to see what client applications have been authorized for what user names:
Notice that one of those consumer keys is marked as the default. To change the default use the
set subcommand, passing then either just the username, if it's unambiguous, or the username and consumer key pair if it isn't unambiguous:
twurl set default testiverse
twurl set default noradio HQsAGcBm5MQT4n6j7qVJw
Profiles and Bearer Tokens
While changing the default profile allows you to select which access token (OAuth1.0a) to use, bearer tokens don't link to any user profiles as the Application-only authentication doesn't require user context. That is, you can make an application-only request regardless of your default profile if you specify the
--consumer-key) option once you generate a bearer token with this consumer key. By default, twurl reads the current profile's consumer key and its associated bearer token from
Marcel Molina / @noradio
Erik Michaels-Ober / @sferik
and there are many more!